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That lesson was once already taught through Shylock. forty two right here the nature of Shylock and the union of greed and cruelty within the motion of the service provider of Venice are unmistakably suitable. Marx drives the purpose domestic through prolonged quotations from Act IV, scene i, of that play: from the trade among Portia, Shylock, and Gratiano within which Shylock reveals himself discomfited. ’Is that the legislations? , he asks, to be spoke back by way of Portia’s ‘Thyself shalt see the act’. ‘And you shall see the act’, Marx echoes triumphantly, as he concludes his demonstration of the inhumanity and, finally, the illegality of the claims made via landowners opposed to those that amassed firewood of their forests. The implied identity of Gentile, feudal landowners with Shylock the Jew doubtless gave Marx, and readers attuned to him, a malicious species of delight. Works within the epic instead of the dramatic mode can, after all, be utilized in an identical way—as Marx demonstrates, within the wood-theft articles, via a juxtaposition of arguments utilized by those that championed landowners’ rights with a citation from Goethe’s Reynard the Fox (Reineke Fuchs). forty three This poem used to be to preserve a distinct curiosity for Marx as a result of its cynicism approximately politicians of all colors, and since underneath its courtly or politically subtle French, Flemish, and occasional German originals (Roman de Renart, Van den Vos Reinaerde, Reinke de Vos) its starting place in folk-art, in well known animal fables, continues to be basically discernible. If there has been one endeavour of the German Romantics with which he sympathized whole-heartedly it used to be their try and look after and research German folk-literature. A telling apart in Marx’s Rheinische Zeitung article of one January 1843 speaks of ‘a real fairy-tale’ (ein wahres Märchen) as an expression of the essence of a given humans, an embodiment of its concepts, fears, and hopes. forty four Literature doesn't, besides the fact that, look continuously because the best friend of fact in Marx’s articles for the Rheinische Zeitung. In his essay on ‘The ancient college of legislation’ (Das philosophische happen der historischen Rechtsschule), for example, Marx blames Gustav Hugo for making no contrast among proof from works of the mind's eye, and proof from different kinds of authority: Hugo’s argumentation is as optimistic, i. e. uncritical, as his rules. He understands of no contrast. Any current factor is an expert for him, and any authority he considers adequate. So in one paragraph he'll quote Moses and Voltaire, Richardson and Homer, Montaigne and Ammon, Rousseau’s Contrat Social and St. Augustine’s De Civitate Dei …45 The severe spirit, the old spirit, the spirit that makes differences, should be exercised as vigilantly while utilizing literary allusions as in all places else. Hugo’s failure to make the appropriate use of such authority as Homer and Richardson will be acknowledged to own is paralleled, in Marx’s eyes, by way of his failure to differentiate among better and decrease sorts of morality, among ‘the rash at the epidermis’ and ‘the epidermis itself’.